It is important to distinguish between antecedents that are internal (respondent) and external (operant) in order to facilitate a better functional understanding of behavior.
Positive Reinforcement: A stimulus or response is presented following a desired behavior to increase the likelihood of its frequency — may be tangible, intangible or social.
Prompting: Presenting an extra stimulus to bring about a desired response which is then positively reinforced.
Fading: This procedure gradually decreases the prompts or reinforcers.
Shaping: Successive approximations of the desired behavior are reinforced.
Premack Principle: A behavior the student performs frequently is used to reinforce an infrequently performed behavior. First you work then you play.
Voice Control: A loud, flat, firm command, such as “not available” is used to interrupt the behavior with a verbal prompt. A verbal reprimand is not yelling or ridicule. The purpose is to interrupt the behavior with a verbal prompt.
Reinforcement: Something that happens following a response (a consequence) either planned or unplanned, and acts to increase the behavior that immediately precedes it.
DRI or ALT-R: Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior. To reinforce a positive, competing behavior instead of the negative behavior. When the competing behavior is performed the negative behavior cannot be performed.
DRO: Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior. Reinforcing any behavior the student performs other than the negative behavior.
DRL: Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Behavior. Reinforcement given on a regular schedule or when the undesired behavior occurs at or less than specified number.
Contingency Contracting: A mutually agreeable arrangement between the student and teacher based on expectations and outcome. If expectations are met the outcome is delivered.
Self-Relaxation: An internalized skill that can be place dependent. Student can be directed without physical prompts to an area where he or she can quietly relax.
Self-Correction (logical consequences): The student is encouraged to clean up after himself. This provides a natural consequence to behaviors where a student has intentionally misbehaved (made a mess, tipped over a desk).
Response Cost: The student is given a certain number of tokens at the beginning of the day. The student pays a designated cost for inappropriate behaviors. At the end of the day, the student may cash in the remaining number of tokens for reinforcement.
Extinction: The student is no longer reinforced for behavior which has been reinforced in the past. This procedure is often used to eliminate undesirable attention-getting behaviors. Extinction is only used when the adult has control over the stimulus that is reinforcing the behavior.
Time Away from Positive Reinforcement – Non-Isolated
– Same place (at or near table observing peers)
– Same area (further away from table observing peers)
– Same room (even further away, but in same room observing peers)
– Turn student away from the activity
Loss or Removal of Privilege: Removal of privilege contingent upon a specific inappropriate behavior. The student is able to get the privilege back within a reasonable amount of time.
Environmental Restrictions: Minor modifications of the environment to contain a student who would otherwise be out of the chair. This also allows the student to participate in the activity (e.g. table as a barrier or sitting in a chair turned backwards).
Time Away From Positive Reinforcement: Contingent upon a specific inappropriate behavior, this procedure involves removing the student from the activity area and separating the student from the activity. The student is not being positively reinforced during this time. The purpose is to remove the student from the reinforcing situation and from the attention of staff and peers.
Time Away From Positive Reinforcement: Time away is used as a technique to reduce the rate of inappropriate problem behavior.
Behavioral Emergency Interventions
The emergency intervention procedures used at Sierra Foothills Academy will correspond with those procedures approved by the Special Education Local Planning Area (SELPA).
1. The least restrictive intervention techniques are always used for a behavioral emergency. The techniques used at Sierra Foothills Academy are those established by Pro-Act which provide instruction and principles related to professionalism, preparation, communication, crisis de-escalation and evasion.
2. Our number one priority is to keep our students and staff safe.